Authors: Kriti Nagrath, Kate Dooley & Sven Teske.
Basic information on ecosystem-based approaches to climate mitigation is provided, and their inclusion in international climate and nature conservation treaties is discussed. Key concepts around net-zero emissions and carbon removal are examined, as are the roles they play in the One Earth Climate Model, which develops a 1.5 °C-compatible scenario by combining ecosystem restoration with deep decarbonization pathways. The carbon removal potentials of the five ecosystem restoration pathways—forests and agricultural lands, forest restoration, reforestation, reduced harvest, agroforestry, and silvopasture—are provided. Land-use management options, including the creation of ‘carbon conservation zones’ (CCZ), are discussed.